Memorization Work: Through these exercises, sub-sectioned into the four operations, the children familiarize themselves with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division combinations. It also provides a key to algebra, geometry, square roots and factoring. The memory is enhanced by the absorbent mind, so memorization can happen spontaneously. Addition Snake Game: The child uses number bead bars to form a ‘snake’, and counts the beads to form quantities. This work helps the child to memorize essential addition combinations. Addition Strip Board: The children explore the ways that one can make combinations for each of the numbers up to 18. Addition Charts: memorization charts Subtraction Negative Snake Game: The child uses number bead bars and negative bead bars to form a ‘snake’ and becomes familiar with subtraction combinations. This can be a first step toward algebra – integers of opposite signs cancel one another out. Negative Strip Board: The children explore subtraction combinations to aid in memorization. Subtraction Charts: memorization charts Multiplication Bead Bar Layout: The child works with colored bead bars representing 1-9 to reinforce the function of the multiplier. This work prepares the child for square root, factoring and division by helping the child to visualize the divisibility of numbers. It also prepares the child for geometry and algebra. Multiplication Board: The children explore multiplication combinations through the tens tables. Multiplication Charts: memorization charts Division Unit Division Board: The child works with beads on a board to explore division and learn that not every number can be divided evenly and that some quantities can be divided by several numbers. The child also sees the relationship between multiplication and division. Division Charts: memorization charts 39