End of Cycle Benchmarks for Ecoliteracy: by the end of each cycle students will know: The Designed World: Agricultural Technology Producing Food Know that most food comes from farms either directly as crops or as the animals that eat crops. Know how human activities have increased the ability of the physical environment to support human life. Understand the environmental consequences of both the unintended and intended outcomes of major technological changes in human history. Understand the role of technology in resource acquisition and use, and its impact on the environment. Transporting Food Know the modes of transportation used to move people, products and ideas from place to place, their importance and their advantages and disadvantages. Know people invent new ways of doing things, solving problems, and getting work done. Know the various ways in which people satisfy their basic needs and wants through the production of goods and services throughout the world. Know that technologies often have costs as well as benefits and can have an enormous effect on people and other living things. Effects on Society Understand the role of agriculture in early settled communities; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; and how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices. Understand that people control some characteristics of plants and animals they raise by selective breeding and by preserving varieties of seeds to use if growing conditions change. Controlling Characteristics Know that plants and animals need enough warmth, light, and water to grow well. Know that some plant varieties and animal breeds have more desirable characteristics than others, but may be more difficult or costly to raise or grow. The Human Organism: Maintaining Good Health Diet and Exercise Know that eating a variety of healthy foods and getting enough exercise and rest help people to stay healthy. Know how to distinguish between helpful and harmful substances. Know the nutrient values of different foods and healthy eating practices. Know that tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, and certain poisons in the environment can harm humans and other living things. Understand how nutrient and energy needs vary in relation to gender, activity level and age. Know that the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances that are harmful to humans. Individual health requires monitoring the soil, air, and water and taking steps to make them safe. Understand how lifestyle, pathogens, family history, and other risk factors are related to the cause or prevention of disease and other health problems. Harmful Substances Maintaining Good Health Know how basic personal hygiene habits required to maintain health. Know ways in which a person can prevent or reduce the risk of disease and disability. Dining Grace and Courtesy Gardening and greenhouse Meal planning, preparation, and cleanup Understand standards of behavior and consciousness Know how to plant, tend to, and harvest a crop Know where food comes from, how it’s made, how we dispose of it 103